·      Immediate consequences
o   excruciating pain (without anesthesia)
o   hemorrhaging
o   acute infections
The transmission of AIDS and the hepatitis B virus is due to the fact that the same instrument is used to perform the operation on several girls. The excision of a girl carrying the AIDS virus or the hepatitis B virus leads to the contamination of all the other girls excised afterwards. 
 In cases of severe hemorrhaging the girl can die. 

Delayed Consequences 

Delayed complications occur under other conditions such as sexual intercourse, pregnancy, childbirth? 

o   dermoid cysts
o   menstrual disorders
o   cheloids
o   dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse)
o   frigidity (lack of sensitivity during sexual intercourse)

o   chronic infections of the internal genital organs (uterine tubes,

o   infertility

o   fistulae and urinary or fecal incontinence

o   The consequences are also serious for the children of excised women. Many children are born with complications. Sometimes, the children die during childbirth.

 Psychological Consequences

FGM causes serious psychological problems for excised women:
o   acute fear before and during the operation traumatizes the girl
o   agitation during initial sexual intercourse (especially for infibulated women)
o   psychological pressure during difficult childbirth
o   intense disappointment in the event of a fistula (abandoned by society)
o   incompatibility with husband due to repeated disappointments during sexual intercourse

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